The following extracts are from Pauline Freegard’s MBA research project covering gamification of business systems, user adoption and lawyer psychology in the context of systems and design. This work is the copyright of Pauline Freegard MBA and may not be reproduced without permission.
Gamification design elements
There are a variety of game-like mechanisms that have been applied to systems. They range from simple points systems, rewards, leader boards, social elements to pure gameplay. (Mlinar and Weppel, 2015). Different game mechanics have been found to appeal to different employee roles (Axonify, 2015 as cited by Mlinar and Weppel, 2015). Mlinar and Weppel go on to discuss the importance of utilising core elements of gaming design as Story, Score and Strategy in learning systems specifically.
Robson et al (2015a) postulate based upon that there are four categories of ‘player’ found in case studies. Their work is based on the original work of Bartle (1996) examining the first online game environments called multi-user domains/dimensions (MUD’s). Robson et al (2015a) identify these as Scholars, Slayers, Socialites and Strivers. The defining characteristics of each are described in figure 1.
Deterding et al. (2011) as cited in Bedard (2015) also concur that the best gamification projects tap into intrinsic motivations that combine:
- Meaning – also defined as Purpose (Pink, 2009) and Story (Mlinar & Weppel, 2015)
- A path to Mastery – by tracking Scores (Mlinar and Weppel, 2015) game elements may offer a path to mastering a task or a set of tasks.
- Autonomy – self-directed Strategy (Mlinar and Weppel, 2015) in how to execute the task
The fourth element of best practice suggested by Mlinar and Weppel is Support. It is logical that IT systems become less engaging and frustrating if the user is not supported in their experience. It is backed up by another research field into the user acceptance of technology. Ease of use is vital to user acceptance and adoption of technology (Hamari, 2015).